El Tuweina

The structure of El Tuweina is located in mid-Wadi Abu Dom and thus in an entirely different topographical situation. The three structures in the ruins of El Tuweina are clearly distinguished from each other; for now, they are designated simply Object 1 (remains of low walls), Object 2 (the mound with middle range walls), and Object 3 (a second mound with higher walls).

The visible remains of Object 1 suggest a walled enclosure, perhaps with a rectangular plan ca. 33 by 33m. Inside there are remains of installations, some built up against the wall and others freestanding in the courtyard. During the excavations (see season 2017 and season 2018) several mudbrick walls were discovered which hint to a more complex groundplan.

Object 2 is defined by a small mound oval in shape, but the wall to the west has been entirely destroyed by bulldozing. The building might have once been a residential building and belongs to a second building phase.

Object 3 is defined by higher walls, surrounding elongated rooms, as well as a (secondary) northern apartment with smaller rooms. The elongated rooms were accessible from the eastern side; at present, no windows to the outside were documented.

The chronological succession of the various structures at El Tuweina is not finally cleared, but at least the north-western corner of building object 1 (with the later addition of building object 2), object 3 with the secondary northern apartment, and the room structures at the eastern wall of object 1 show 2 building phases. Until now, it remains unclear whether these building phases correlate to each other, and therefore two coherent building phases can also be estimated for the building entire complex in general.  C-14 data provides a basis for dating the erection of the complex during the late Meroitic era. Moreover, the function is also not finally cleared yet: Anyway, coloured plaster fragments indicate an elite character, while several cooking installations imply a settlement context.